Chapman, C. A. Primate seed dispersal: The fate of dispersed seeds. Biotropica 21, 148-154 (1989).
Clements, F. E. Plant Succession. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1916.
Connell, J. H. Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35, 131-13 (1980).
Fleagle, J. G. et al. Primate Communities. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Gause, G. F. The struggle for existence. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1934.
Glander, K. H. "Habitat description and resource utilization: A preliminary report on mantled howler monkey ecology," in Socioecology and Psychology of Primates, ed. R. H. Tuttle (The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton, 1975), pp 37 - 57.
Howe, H. F. Ecological Relationships of Plants and Animals. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Hutchinson, G. E. Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology22, 415-427 (1957).
Isbell, L. A. Predation on primates: Ecological patterns and evolution consequences. Evolutionary Anthropology3, 61-71 (1994).
Isbell, L. A. & Young T. P. Human presence reduces predation in a free-ranging vervet monkey population in Kenya. Animal Behaviour45, 1233-1235 (1993).
Jaffe, K .E. & Isbell, L. "The Guenons: Polyspecific associations in sociological perspective," in Primates in Perspective, eds. C. J. Campbell et al. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010), pp 277 - 300.
Lambert, J. E. Primate digestion: Interactions among anatomy, physiology, and feeding ecology. Evolutionary Anthropology7, 8-20 (1998).
Lambert, J. E. "Resource switching in guenons: A community analysis of dietary flexibility," in The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys, eds. M. Glenn & M. Cords (New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Press, 2002), pp 303-317.
Lambert, J. E. Primate seed dispersers as umbrella species: A case study from Kibale National Park, Uganda, with implications for Afrotropical forest conservation. American Journal of Primatology73, 9-24 (2011).
Milton, K. Effects of bot fly (Alouattamyia baeri) parasitism on a free-ranging howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) population in Panama. Journal of Zoology239, 39-63 (1996).
Mitani, J. C. & Watts. D. Demographic influences on the hunting behavior of chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology109, 439-454 (1999).
Mitani, J. C. et al. Predatory behavior of crowned hawk-eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology49, 187-195 (2001).
Morin, P. J. Community Ecology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science, 1999.
Norconk, M. A. et al. Seed dispersal by neotropical seed predators. American Journal of Primatology45, 103-126 (1998).
Potts, R. Humanity's Descent: The Consequences of Ecological Instability. New York, NY: William Morrow & Company, 1996.
Struhsaker, T. T. Polyspecific associations among tropical rain forest primates. Zietschrift fur Teirpsychologie57, 268-304 (1981).
Struhsaker, T. T. Ecology of an African Rain Forest: Logging in Kibale and the Conflict Between Conservation and Exploitation. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1997.
Strier, K. B. Primate Behavioral Ecology, 4th ed. New York, NY: Prentice Hall, 2011.
Stanford, C. B. Chimpanzee and Red Colobus: The Ecology of Predator and Prey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Stevenson, P. R. Seeds dispersal by woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha) at Tinigua National Park, Columbia: Dispersal distance, germination rates and dispersal quality. American Journal of Primatology50, 275-289 (2000).
Stuart, M. D. & Strier, K. B. Primates and parasites. International Journal of Primatology16, 577-593 (1995).
Tokeshi, M. Species Coexistence: Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science, 1999.
Verhoef, H. A. & Morin, P. J. Community Ecology: Processes, Models, and Applications. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010.
1Institute of Biology, National Autonomous University of Mexico, CP 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.
2Department of Anthropology, Program in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
3Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, USA.
4Gene Bank of Primates and Primate Genetics Laboratory, German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
5Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
6Department of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78705, USA.
7Department of Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, U.K.
8Abteilung Verhaltensökologie und Soziobiologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Leibniz-Institut für Primatenforschung, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany.
9Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1350 Pleasant Street UCB 233, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.
10Tropical Biodiversity Section, MUSE—Museo delle Scienze, Corso del Lavoro e della Scienza 3, 38122 Trento, Italy.
11Department of Anthropology, and Behaviour, Ecology and Evolution Research Centre, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, U.K.
12Departments of Environmental Sciences and Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 400 Dowman Drive, Math and Science Center, Suite E510, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
13Naturhistorisches Museum Bern, Bernastrasse 15, CH-3005 Bern, Switzerland.
14Department of Ecology, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE 49100-000, Brazil.
15Department of Zoology, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA 40170-290, Brazil.
16Neotropical Primate Conservation, 23 Portland Road, Manchester M32 0PH, U.K.
17Asociación Neotropical Primate Conservation Perú, 1187 Avenida Belaunde, La Esperanza, Yambrasbamba, Bongará, Amazonas, Peru.
18Department of Biology, Rhodes College, 2000 North Parkway, Memphis, TN 38112, USA.
19Department of Anthropology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA.
20Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63108, USA.
21Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, 1810 Hinman Avenue, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.
22Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, C.P. 19020, Curitiba, PR 81531-990, Brazil.
23School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, James Parsons Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, U.K.
24Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
25Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.
26School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, University of Western Australia (M309), 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.
27Centre Suisse des Recherches Scientifiques, Université de Cocody, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
28Xi’an Branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, No. 229, Taibai North Road, Xi’an 710069, China.
*Corresponding author. Email: moc.liamg@setamirpadartsea (A.E.); ude.sionilli@rebrag-p (P.A.G.)
Author information ►Article notes ►Copyright and License information ►
Received 2016 Apr 30; Accepted 2016 Nov 22.
Copyright © 2017, The Authors
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.