The Recorder in the Renaissance
The profile of the modern recorder, in three sections so familiar to grade-school children, emerged in the second half of the seventeenth century, but the recorder’s history begins at least two or three centuries earlier. The two earliest extant recorders, both small, plain wooden instruments, date from the fourteenth century, and archival and pictorial evidence survives from the same period. A member of the flute family, the recorder was used for art music in western Europe throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. As a musical instrument, the recorder is identified by its whistle mouthpiece (also known as a fipple or duct), by the seven fingerholes on the front of the instrument, and by the thumbhole on the back side. Until our time, it was usually made of wood, although occasionally of ivory.
Most Renaissance recorders were constructed from a single piece of undecorated wood with a predominantly cylindrical bore. The instrument had a relatively narrow range of an octave and a sixth, with a rich timbre, perfect for blending in an ensemble. Makers would construct matched consorts of various sizes of recorders, from the smallest—only a few inches long—to the largest, which might measure more than six feet. A full family of recorders was needed for playing the notated polyphonic repertory of the period—motets, secular songs, fantasias, canzonas, and arrangements of dances—music made commonly available in the sixteenth century by the invention of music printing in 1501. A typical recorder ensemble, as described by music theorists Sebastian Virdung (1511) and Martin Agricola (1532) and illustrated by Michael Praetorius (Syntagma musicum, 1614–20) and Marin Mersenne (Harmonie universelle, 1636–37), might comprise an alto in G’, two tenors in C’, and a basset in F [recorder consort from Praetorius]. King Henry VIII (r. 1509–47), an avid amateur musician, by the end of his life owned seventy-six recorders, undoubtedly organized in several matched choirs. They were likely played by the five members of the Bassano family, the royal professional recorder consort, as well as by Henry himself. The Museum’s tenor recorder in C’ (89.4.3133), while possibly constructed in the seventeenth century, is a typical Renaissance-style recorder, made from a single piece of maple, simple in appearance, with twin fingerholes on the bottom, allowing the player the option of playing left- or right-handed after plugging the unused hole.
The Recorder in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries
During the sixteenth century and into the seventeenth, a new music aesthetic emerged in western Europe, emphasizing the soloist’s ability to express emotion and to dazzle with virtuosity. The years around 1600 marked the birth of opera, the rise of music making in public concert halls and theaters (with the attendant need for performers to project to and impress an audience), and further growth in the businesses of music publishing and instrument building. In order to extend the recorder’s musical range, the bore of many smaller recorders in the first half of the seventeenth century featured a “choke” or narrowing near the lowest finger hole. (See Anthony van Dyck’s painting Lucas van Uffel, 14.40.619, which includes a seventeenth-century-style recorder as one of the possessions of a cultured gentleman.) The instrument’s wider range, along with the early Baroque interest in virtuosity, is particularly demonstrated in Der Fluyten Lust-hof, an enormous mid-seventeenth-century collection for soprano recorder of virtuosic variations on popular tunes improvised by the blind Dutch carillonneur Jacob van Eyck (1589/90–1657).
The recorder in this period was associated in opera and art with pastoral and erotic themes (for example, respectively, Georges de La Tour’s Adoration of the Shepherds at the Louvre, Paris; Titian’sVenus and the Lute Player (36.29); and Caravaggio’sMusicians, 52.81). Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), among several Italian early opera composers, specified the recorder for a number of scenes in his Arcadian opera Orfeo (1607), incidentally, the earliest known writing for recorder with basso continuo. Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632–1687), Henry Purcell (1659–1695), and, a bit later, Georg Frideric Handel (1685–1759) included it in several vocal and stage works to symbolize lamentation, death, and the supernatural, as well as the pastoral.
The Recorder in the Late Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries
In the second half of the seventeenth century, the recorder, along with the transverse flute, oboe, and bassoon, underwent a redesign that radically altered its capabilities, ushering in what we think of as the truly Baroque recorder. This revolution, occurring simultaneously in Italy, France, and elsewhere in Europe, resulted in a recorder with a tapering or conical bore, which required constructing the instrument in three sections or joints. In addition, recorders were adorned with decorative Baroque turnings, which strengthened the joints. The new design gave the upper register of the recorder’s range of two octaves and a step more brilliance and reliability.
While the recorder continued to be built in various sizes for various purposes through the first half of the eighteenth century, by 1690 the alto in F’ had emerged as the primary recorder, equivalent as soloist to the flute, oboe, or violin; it was avidly embraced by musical amateurs as well as professional wind players who doubled on recorder. The alto in F’ is the recorder for which Handel, Johann Mattheson (1681–1764), Georg Philipp Telemann (1681–1767), Alessandro Scarlatti (1660–1725), Benedetto Marcello (1686–1739), and Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741) wrote solo sonatas and chamber works with basso continuo accompaniment, and which Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) specified for his second and fourth Brandenburg Concertos and several cantatas, including BWV 106. Vivaldi also composed highly virtuosic concertos for both alto in F’ (as did Telemann) and sopranino in F”. The Museum’s elaborately carved ivory alto recorder in F’ by Johann Benedikt Gahn (active 1674–1711; 89.4.909), who specialized in ivory wind instruments, was an expensive and relatively rare commodity, fit mainly for a wealthy music lover. In contrast, the Museum’s boxwood recorder by Johann Wilhelm Oberlender the Elder (1681–1763; 89.4.2208) is more simply decorated with horn and Baroque-style turning, a more typical instrument on which a sonata by Telemann might be played. Like Gahn, Oberlender lived in Nuremberg, an important center of instrument building at this time.
The recorder gained particular popularity among amateurs in early eighteenth-century England after the French instrument builder Peter (Jaillard) Bressan moved to London, where he flourished from 1688 to 1730. The fourth flute in B-flat’, a recorder so called because it is pitched a fourth above the alto in F’, was the recorder favored by the transplanted French composer Charles Dieupart (ca. 1667–ca. 1740), who also worked in London. The Museum’s beautiful ebony and ivory soprano by Thomas Boekhout (1666–1715; 89.4.912) may be an example of such an instrument. Many eighteenth-century examples of the more familiar soprano in C”, tenor in C’, and bass in F by makers from all over western Europe are also extant.
Among the finest recorder makers to follow Peter Bressan was Londoner Thomas Stanesby Jr. (1692–1754). A few of his recorders, perhaps in response to the growing popularity of the transverse flute by the 1720s, feature foot joints that resembled the tapering end of the flute; the Stanesby alto in F’ (1982.390) is such an instrument. In 1732, Stanesby had argued for the adoption of his tenor recorder in C’ as a worthy rival to the flute’s increasing musical hegemony among professional performers. With larger instrumental ensembles and concert halls, the flute prevailed by mid-century, due to its greater ability to project, and its greater range and dynamic capabilities, becoming a regular member of the classical orchestra. The recorder was left an antiquarian curiosity until its rebirth in the early twentieth century, leading to perhaps its most important historic era.
Georg Philipp Telemann (24 March [O.S. 14 March] 1681 – 25 June 1767) (German pronunciation:[ˈteːləman]) was a German Baroquecomposer and multi-instrumentalist. Almost completely self-taught in music, he became a composer against his family's wishes. After studying in Magdeburg, Zellerfeld, and Hildesheim, Telemann entered the University of Leipzig to study law, but eventually settled on a career in music. He held important positions in Leipzig, Sorau, Eisenach, and Frankfurt before settling in Hamburg in 1721, where he became musical director of the five main churches. While Telemann's career prospered, his personal life was always troubled: his first wife died only a few months after their marriage, and his second wife had extramarital affairs and accumulated a large gambling debt before leaving Telemann.
Telemann is one of the most prolific composers in history (at least in terms of surviving oeuvre) and was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the leading German composers of the time—he was compared favorably both to his friend Johann Sebastian Bach, who made Telemann the godfather and namesake of his son Carl Philipp Emanuel, and to George Frideric Handel, whom Telemann also knew personally. Telemann's music incorporates several national styles (French, Italian, German) and is even at times influenced by Polish popular music. He remained at the forefront of all new musical tendencies and his music is an important link between the late Baroque and early Classical styles.
Early life (1681–1712)
Telemann was born in Magdeburg, then the capital of the Duchy of Magdeburg, Brandenburg-Prussia. His father Heinrich, deacon at the Church of the Holy Spirit (Heilige-Geist-Kirche), died when Telemann was four. The future composer received his first music lessons at 10, from a local organist, and became immensely interested in music in general, and composition in particular. Despite opposition from his mother and relatives, who forbade any musical activities, Telemann found it possible to study and compose in secret, even creating an opera at age 12.
In 1697, after studies at the Domschule in Magdeburg and at a school in Zellerfeld, Telemann was sent to the famous Gymnasium Andreanum at Hildesheim, where his musical talent flourished, supported by school authorities, including the rector himself. Telemann was becoming equally adept both at composing and performing, teaching himself flute, oboe, violin, recorder, double bass, and other instruments. In 1701 he graduated from the Gymnasium and went to Leipzig to become a student at the Leipzig University, where he intended to study law. He ended up becoming a professional musician, regularly composing works for Nikolaikirche and even St. Thomas (Thomaskirche). In 1702 he became director of the municipal opera house Opernhaus auf dem Brühl, and later music director at the Neukirche. Prodigiously productive, Telemann supplied a wealth of new music for Leipzig, including several operas, one of which was his first major opera, Germanicus. However, he became engaged in a conflict with the cantor of the Thomaskirche, Johann Kuhnau. The conflict intensified when Telemann started employing numerous students for his projects, including those who were Kuhnau's, from the Thomasschule.
Telemann left Leipzig in 1705 at the age of 24 after receiving an invitation to become Kapellmeister for the court of Count Erdmann II of Promnitz at Sorau (now Żary, in Poland). His career there was cut short in early 1706 by the hostilities of the Great Northern War, and after a short period of travels he entered the service of Duke Johann Wilhelm, in Eisenach where Johann Sebastian Bach was born. He became Konzertmeister on 24 December 1708 and Secretary and Kapellmeister in August 1709. During his tenure at Eisenach, Telemann created a very large amount of music: at least four annual cycles of church cantatas, dozens of sonatas and concertos, and other works. In 1709 he married Amalie Louise Juliane Eberlin, lady-in-waiting to the Countess of Promnitz and daughter of the musician Daniel Eberlin. Their daughter was born in January 1711. The mother died soon afterwards, leaving Telemann depressed and distraught.
After less than a year he sought another position, and moved to Frankfurt on 18 March 1712 at the age of 31 to become city music director and Kapellmeister at the Barfüßerkirche. In Frankfurt, he fully gained his mature personal style. Here, as in Leipzig, he was a powerful force in the city's musical life, creating music for two major churches, civic ceremonies, and various ensembles and musicians. By 1720 he had adopted the use of the da capo aria, which had been adopted by composers such as Domenico Scarlatti. Operas such as Narciso, which was brought to Frankfurt in 1719, written in the Italian idiom of composition, made a mark on Telemann's output.
On 28 August 1714, three years after his first wife had died, Telemann married his second wife, Maria Catharina Textor, daughter of a Frankfurt council clerk. They eventually had nine children together. This was a source of much personal happiness, and helped him produce compositions. Telemann continued to be extraordinarily productive and successful, even augmenting his income by working for Eisenach employers as a Kapellmeistervon Haus aus, that is, regularly sending new music while not actually living in Eisenach. Telemann's first published works also appeared during the Frankfurt period. His output increased rapidly, for he fervently composed overture-suites and chamber music, most of which is unappreciated. In the latter half of the Frankfurt period, he composed an innovative work, his Viola Concerto in G major, which is twice the length of his violin concertos. Also, here he composed his first choral masterpiece, his Brockes Passion, in 1716.
The composer, however, was still ambitious and wishing for a better post, so in 1721 he accepted the invitation to work in Hamburg as Kantor of the JohanneumLateinschule, and music director of the five largest churches. Soon after arrival, Telemann encountered some opposition from church officials who found his secular music and activities to be too much of a distraction for both Telemann himself and the townsfolk. The next year, when Johann Kuhnau died and the city of Leipzig was looking for a new Thomaskantor, Telemann applied for the job and was approved, yet declined after Hamburg authorities agreed to give him a suitable raise. After another candidate, Christoph Graupner, declined, the post went to Johann Sebastian Bach.
Telemann took a few small trips outside of Germany at this time. However, later in the Hamburg period he traveled to Paris and stayed for eight months, 1737 into 1738. He heard and was impressed by Castor et Pollux, an opera by French composer Jean-Philippe Rameau. From then on, he incorporated the French operatic style into his vocal works. Before then, his influence was primarily Italian and German. Apart from that, Telemann remained in Hamburg for the rest of his life. A vocal masterpiece of this period is his St Luke Passion from 1728, which is a prime example of his fully matured vocal style.
His first years there were plagued by marital troubles: his wife's infidelity, and her gambling debts, which amounted to a sum larger than Telemann's annual income. The composer was saved from bankruptcy by the efforts of his friends, and by the numerous successful music and poetry publications Telemann made during the years 1725 to 1740. By 1736 husband and wife were no longer living together because of their financial disagreements. Although still active and fulfilling the many duties of his job, Telemann became less productive in the 1740s, for he was in his 60s. He took up theoretical studies, as well as hobbies such as gardening and cultivating exotic plants, something of a fad in Hamburg at that time, and a hobby shared by Handel. Most of the music of the 1750s appears to have been parodied from earlier works. Telemann's eldest son Andreas died in 1755, and Andreas' son Georg Michael Telemann was raised by the aging composer. Troubled by health problems and failing eyesight in his last years, Telemann was still composing into the 1760s. He died on the evening of 25 June 1767 from what was recorded at the time as a "chest ailment." He was succeeded at his Hamburg post by his godson, Johann Sebastian Bach's second son Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach.
Legacy and influence
Telemann was one of the most prolific major composers of all time: his all-encompassing oeuvre comprises more than 3,000 compositions, half of which have been lost, and most of which have not been performed since the 18th century. From 1708 to 1750, Telemann composed 1,043 sacred cantatas and 600 overture-suites, and types of concertos for combinations of instruments that no other composer of the time composed. The first accurate estimate of the number of his works was provided by musicologists only during the 1980s and 1990s, when extensive thematic catalogues were published. During his lifetime and the latter half of the 18th century, Telemann was very highly regarded by colleagues and critics alike. Numerous theorists (Marpurg, Mattheson, Quantz, and Scheibe, among others) cited his works as models, and major composers such as J.S. Bach and Handel bought and studied his published works. He was immensely popular not only in Germany but also in the rest of Europe: orders for editions of Telemann's music came from France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Scandinavian countries, Switzerland, and Spain. It was only in the early 19th century that his popularity came to a sudden halt. Most lexicographers started dismissing him as a "polygraph" who composed too many works, a Vielschreiber for whom quantity came before quality. Such views were influenced by an account of Telemann's music by Christoph Daniel Ebeling, a late-18th-century critic who in fact praised Telemann's music and made only passing critical remarks of his productivity. After the Bach revival, Telemann's works were judged as inferior to Bach's and lacking in deep religious feeling. For example, by 1911, the Encyclopædia Britannica lacked an article about Telemann, and in one of its few mentions of him referred to "the vastly inferior work of lesser composers such as Telemann" in comparison to Handel and Bach.
Particularly striking examples of such judgements were produced by noted Bach biographers Philipp Spitta and Albert Schweitzer, who criticized Telemann's cantatas and then praised works they thought were composed by Bach, but which were composed by Telemann. The last performance of a substantial work by Telemann (Der Tod Jesu) occurred in 1832, and it was not until the 20th century that his music started being performed again. The revival of interest in Telemann began in the first decades of the 20th century and culminated in the Bärenreiter critical edition of the 1950s. Today each of Telemann's works is usually given a TWV number, which stands for Telemann-Werke-Verzeichnis (Telemann Works Catalogue).
Telemann's music was one of the driving forces behind the late Baroque and the early Classical styles. Starting in the 1710s he became one of the creators and foremost exponents of the so-called German mixed style, an amalgam of German, French, Italian and Polish styles. Over the years, his music gradually changed and started incorporating more and more elements of the galant style, but he never completely adopted the ideals of the nascent Classical era: Telemann's style remained contrapuntally and harmonically complex, and already in 1751 he dismissed much contemporary music as too simplistic. Composers he influenced musically included pupils of J.S. Bach in Leipzig, such as Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach and Johann Friedrich Agricola, as well as those composers who performed under his direction in Leipzig (Christoph Graupner, Johann David Heinichen and Johann Georg Pisendel), composers of the Berlin lieder school, and finally, his numerous pupils, none of whom, however, became major composers.
Equally important for the history of music were Telemann's publishing activities. By pursuing exclusive publication rights for his works, he set one of the most important early precedents for regarding music as the intellectual property of the composer. The same attitude informed his public concerts, where Telemann would frequently perform music originally composed for ceremonies attended only by a select few members of the upper class.
Partial list of works
See also: Telemann-Werke-Verzeichnis
See List of operas by Telemann
- Cantata Cycle 1716–1717
- Harmonischer Gottes-Dienst
- Die Donner-Ode ("The Ode of Thunder") TWV 6:3a-b
- Du bleibest dennoch unser Gott (Erstausgabe 1730)
- Ihr Völker, hört
- Ino (1765)
- Sei tausendmal willkommen (Erstausgabe 1730)
- Die Tageszeiten ("The Times of the Day") (1757)
- Gott, man lobet dich, Cantata for the Peace of Paris, 1763, for 5-part chorus, flute, 2 oboes, bassoon, 3 trumpets, 2 horns, strings & continuo, TWV 14:12
- Hamburger Admiralitätsmusik several years including TWV 24:1
- Der Tag des Gerichts ("The Day of Judgement") (1761–62)
- Hamburgische Kapitänsmusik (various years)
- Der Tod Jesu ("The Death of Jesus") TWV 5:6 (1755)
- Die Auferstehung und Himmelfahrt Jesu" ("The Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus") TWV 6:6, (1760)
- Trauermusik for emperor Karl VII (1745) Ich hoffete aufs Licht, TWV 4:13
- Trauermusik for Hamburg mayor nl:Garlieb Sillem Schwanengesang TWV 4:6
- Der aus der Löwengrube errettete Daniel ("Daniel Delivered from the Lion’s Den") (1731) [This has been incorrectly attributed to Handel]
- Reformations-Oratorium 1755 Holder Friede, Heilger Glaube TWV 13:18
- Grillen-symphonie TWV 50:1
- Ouverture (Wassermusik: Hamburger Ebb und Fluth) TWV 55:C3
- Ouverture des nations anciens et modernes in G TWV 55:G4
- Ouverture in G minor TWV 55:g4
- Suite in A minor for recorder, strings, and continuo TWV 55:a2
- Overture: Alster Echo in F, for 4 horns, 2 oboes, bassoon, strings and continuo, TWV55:F11
- Sinfonia Spirituosa in D Major (2 violins, viola & continuo, trumpet ad libitum) TWV 44:1
- Tafelmusik (1733) ('Tafelmusik' refers to music meant to accompany a meal)
- Der getreue Musikmeister (1728), a musical journal containing 70 small vocal and instrumental compositions
- Twelve Paris Quartets in two sets of six (Quadri a violino, flauto traversiere, viola da gamba o violoncello, e fondamento, 1730, reprinted as Six quatuors, 1736; Nouveaux quatuors en six suites, 1738) for flute, violin, viola da gamba or cello, continuo, TWV 43:G1, D1, A1, g1, e1, h1 (first set), TWV 43:D3, a2, G4, h2, A3, e4 (second set)
- Twelve Fantasias for Transverse Flute without Bass TWV 40:2-13
- Twelve Fantasias for Violin without Bass TWV 40:14-25
- Twelve Fantasias for Viola da Gamba solo TWV 40:26-37
- Sonates sans basse (Telemann) TWV 40:101-106
- Six Canonical Sonatas TWV 40: 118-123
- Six Concertos for Flute and Harpsichord TWV 42.
- Concerto in G Major for Viola and String Orchestra, TWV 51:G9; the first known concerto for viola, still regularly performed today
- Concerto in G Major for Two Violas and String Orchestra, TWV 52:G3
- Concerto for Two Horns in D Major TWV 52:D1
- Concerto for Two Horns in D Major TWV 52:D2
- Concerto for Horn and Orchestra in D Major 51:D8
- Trumpet Concerto in D major, 51:D 7
- Concerto in D for Trumpet and 2 Oboes, 53:D 2
- Concerto in D for Trumpet, Violin and Violoncello, 53:D 5
- Concerto in D for 3 Trumpets, Timpani, 2 Oboes, 54:D 3
- Concerto in D for 3 Trumpets, Timpani, 54:D 4
- Concerto in C major for 2 Chalumeaux, 2 Bassoons and Orchestra, 52:C 1
- Concerto in D minor for Two Chalumeaux and Orchestra, 52:d 1
- Concerto in A Major
- Concerto in C Minor
- Concerto in D Minor
- Concerto in E Minor
- Concerto in F Minor
- Concerto in G Major
- Concerto for Recorder and Bassoon in F Major, TWV52:F1
- Concerto in C Major, TWV51:C1
- Concerto in F Major, TWV51:F1
- Concerto for Recorder and Viola da gamba in A Minor, TWV52:a1
- Concerto for 2 Recorders in A Minor, TWV52:a2
- Concerto for 2 Recorders in B-flat Major, TWV52:B1
- Concerto in D Major, TWV51:D2
- Concerto in E Minor for Recorder and Flute, TWV52:e1
- Concerto in B Minor, TWV41:h3
- Concerto in C Minor, TWV41:c3
- Sonata in A minor TWV 41:a3
- Sonata in B-flat TWV 41:B6
- Sonata in E minor TWV 44:e6
- Sonata in G minor TWV 41:g6
- Sonata in G minor TWV 41:g10
- Sonata in F minor TWV 41:f1 (part of the collection Der getreue Musikmeister, 1728)
- Sonata in E-flat major TWV 41:EsA1
- Further information on Telemann and his works
- Modern editions
- Prima la musica! Commercially available performing editions of Telemann's music, as well as other baroque composers.
- Habsburger Verlag Modern performing editions of Telemann's cantatas edited by Eric Fiedler.
- Edition Musiklandschaften Modern performing editions of Telemann's yearly Passions from 1757 to 1767 edited by Johannes Pausch
- Free sheet music
- ^The Guinness Book of World Records 1998, Bantam Books, p. 402. ISBN 0-553-57895-2.
- ^See Phillip Huscher, Program Notes – Telemann Tafelmusik IIIArchived 19 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Chicago Symphony Orchestra, 2007.
- ^Rolland, Romain (2017). Romain Rolland's Essays on Music. Allen, Towne & Heath. p. 109. ISBN 9781443730938.
- ^ abc"Baroque Composers and musicians". Baroquemusic.org. 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- ^"Georg Philipp Telemann – Viola Concerto in G, TWV51:G9". Classical Archives. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- ^Wollny, Peter (1994). Notes on Telemann's St. Matthew Passion. hannsler classic. pp. 12–15.
- ^Profile on Classic FM website
- ^ abZohn, GroveOnline.
- ^See article "Song" in 1911 Encyclopædia BritannicaArchived 23 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^Concerto: Das Magazin für Alte Musik, Vol. 22, p. 14 2005 Am 24. September erklingt dann in St. Anna erstmals wieder Georg Philipp Telemanns Oratorium »Holder Friede, Heilger Glaube«, das 1755 zum 200. Jubiläum des Augsburger Religionsfriedens entstanden ist. "