Population And Environment Essay Writing

Population refers to the total number of organisms inhabiting in a particular area. The rapid growth of population in certain parts of our planet has become a cause of concern.

Population is commonly referred to the total number of people living in an area. However, it also defines the number of organisms who can interbreed. Human population is growing at a rapid pace in certain countries. These countries are being advised to control human control measures. Here are some essays on Population of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exam. You can select the needed ones:

Long and Short Essay on Population

Population Essay 1 (200 words)

The world population is increasing at a very fast pace. The last five to six decades have especially seen a tremendous growth in the human population. There are several reasons for the same. One of the main reasons for this is the development in the field of medical science that has brought down the death rate. Another reason is the growing birth rate especially in the poor and developing countries. Lack of education and lack of family planning are among the top reasons for the high birth rate in these countries.

Ironically, while the human population is increasing rapidly, the population of animals and birds is decreasing by the day. In an attempt to satisfy their needs, the humans are cutting down on forests that serve as a shelter for the wild animals. Several species of animals and birds have been impacted due to this. The growing pollution due to the ever increasing traffic and the establishment of various industries is another reason for the decrease in population of the fauna. This is because it is having a negative impact on the weather.

It is time the governments of the countries with high population must take strict measures to control the same else our planet will no longer be fit for the survival of the mankind.

Population Essay 2 (300 words)


Population is a commonly used term to denote the number of people living at a place. The density of population in different parts of the world varies drastically owing to several reasons.

Uneven Distribution of Population

Population on earth is distributed unevenly. While there are certain countries that are facing the problem of population explosion others are sparsely populated. This is not just the case with the human population it also holds good for animals and other organisms. At certain places you will see greater number of animals while at some places you will hardly find any.

Things that Impact Population Density

The density of population in any area is calculated by dividing the total number of people by the area they are living in. The density of population differs in different places owing to several reasons. Some of the factors that influence the density of population in an area are as follows:

  1. Climate

Places with extremely hot or cold climates are sparsely populated. On the other hand, those that enjoy moderate climate are densely populated.

  1. Resources

The areas with good availability of resources such as oil, wood, coal, etc are densely populated while those that lack these basic resources are sparsely populated.

  1. Political Environment

Countries that enjoy a stable government and a healthy political environment are densely populated. These countries attract immigrants from other countries there by populating the area. On the other hand, countries with poor or unstable government see many people leaving at the availability of any good opportunity elsewhere.

  1. Standard of Living

First world countries such as U.S.A. attract a lot of immigrants as they offer much better packages and a good standard of living to people. People from different parts of the world immigrate to such countries. This is the reason why the density of population in such countries is increasing.


Even though certain places around the globe have low density of population, the overall population of the country has increased over the last few decades and is likely to increase manifolds in the times to come.

Population Essay 3 (400 words)


Population implies to the total number of organisms inhabiting in a particular place. Growth of human population has become a cause of concern in many parts of the world, mainly in the poor countries. On the other hand, there are places where the rate of population is very low.

Increasing Population – A Major Problem in India

India is faced with the problem of growing population. Around 17% of the world’s population resides in India making it one of the most populous countries in the world. As is the case with almost every developing country, there are several reasons that contribute to the increase in population in India. One of the main reasons for the growth of population in India is illiteracy. People from the uneducated and poor class are seen bearing greater number of children. There are two reasons for this. Firstly, more children for them mean more number of hands to work and earn money for the family. Secondly, most of them are not aware about the birth control methods. Early marriage also results in greater number of children. The growth in population may also be attributed to low death rate. Treatments and cures for various illnesses have been developed and thus the death rate has gone down.

Steps Taken for Population Control in India

The government of India has taken certain steps to control the Indian population. Some of these are as follows:

  1. Minimum Marriageable Age

The government has set the minimum marriageable age for men as 21 years and for women as 18 years. However, there is no stringent check on the same. People in the rural and backward areas of the country still marry their children at an early age. The government must increase the minimum age of marriage and also keep a stringent check on the same.

  1. Free Education

The government of India has also made free education available for the children of the country by way of its Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act. Eradicating illiteracy is another way to control population.

  1. Promoting Adoption

The government of India is also promoting the adoption of children. There are several people who abandon their children at birth owing to various reasons. Adopting children rather than having one’s own is also a good way to control population.


Growing population is a serious concern in India. While the government has taken certain steps to control the same these are not effective enough. There are many other measures that need to be taken to curb this issue.

Population Essay 4 (500 words)


Population commonly refers to the total number of people living in a particular region. However, the word population does not only mean the human population but also the wildlife population and the overall population of animals and other living organisms who have the ability to reproduce. Ironically while the human population is increasing at a rapid pace, the population of animals is going down.

How Science and Technology has Led to Human Population Explosion?

There are several factors that have led to population explosion in various parts of the world over the last few decades. One of the leading factors is the progress in the field of science and technology. While earlier there was a balance between the birth rate and the death rate of human beings, the advancement in medical science has created an imbalance in the same. Medicines and advanced medical equipments have been developed to cure several diseases. With the help of these, the death rate among human beings has been brought down and this has led to population explosion.

Besides, technological growth has given way to industrialization. While earlier most people were involved in agricultural activities and earned their livelihood via the same, many have now turned towards jobs in different factories. The population of the regions where these industries are set up is thus becoming denser by the day.

Impact of Human Population Growth on Wildlife Population

While the human population is on the verge of explosion, the wildlife population is decreasing over the time. The population of several species of birds and animals has gone down drastically owing to factors for which the human beings alone can be held responsible. Some of these are discussed below in detail:

  1. Deforestation

The wildlife animals reside in forests. Deforestation means destroying their habitat. Nevertheless, the human beings are ruthlessly cutting and destroying the forests to fulfil their own needs. Several species of animals have decreased and several others have gone extinct due to the degradation or loss of their habitat.

  1. Growing Pollution

The growing air, water and land pollution is another major reason why several animals are dying at an early age. Many species of animals are not being able to cope up with the growing pollution. They incur certain diseases due to it and face fatal consequences.

  1. Changes in the Climate

The climate in various parts of the world has changed drastically. Many areas that earlier received moderate rainfall now witness flood like conditions. Similarly, the areas that remained mildly hot during the summer season now experience extremely hot weather. While the human beings are equipped to adapt to such situations, animals cannot withstand the same.


Man has always thought about his well-being and comfort overlooking the impact it has on the plants, animals and the overall environment around him. If human beings continue to behave this way earth would no longer remain fit for the survival of the human beings. It is time we must recognise the importance of controlling the human population as well as the practices that are ruining our planet.


Population Essay 5 (600 words)


Population is the term used to denote the total number of people living in an area. It does not only refer to the human beings but also to other forms of living organisms that have the ability to reproduce and multiply. The population in many parts of earth is increasing. While the governments of different countries are trying to curb the issue by various means, a lot still needs to be done in order to control it.

Why is it Necessary to Control Population?

The growing rate of population is a cause of several problems. The developing countries are struggling hard to reach up to the level of the developed countries and the rapid growth in the population in these countries is one of the main hindrances in this direction. The problem of unemployment is on all time high only because of the growing population. There are numerous people seeking jobs but the vacancies are limited. Unemployment causes poverty which is another problem. It also creates dissatisfaction among the people and gives rise to crime. Those who do not get their desired jobs often adopt unsolicited means to earn money.

It is also to be understood that the resources are limited but due to the increasing number of people the demand is growing higher. Forests are being cut and huge office and residential buildings are being made in their place. Why? It is all being done to accommodate the growing population. Natural resources are being depleted at a rapid pace because of greater number of people using them. This is causing an imbalance in the environment. More and more natural resources are being used to meet the demands of the people. This does not only cause degradation of the environment but also increases the cost of living. Controlling the population has thus become the need of the hour. It is necessary for establishing balance and harmony in the environment. It will also ensure better standard of living for people.

Possible Steps to Control Human Population

Here are a few possible steps to control the human population:

  1. Education

People from the poor and uneducated classes are mostly the ones who do not plan family. They treat women as a child bearing machine and have children one after the other. It is essential to educate people. The government must take steps to make education necessary for all.

  1. Family Planning

It is essential for the government to sensitize people about the importance of family planning. This should be done repeatedly by means of radio, television, internet and other forms of communication.

  1. Monetary Benefits

The government should exempt the taxes or provide other monetary benefits to the families who have single child. Since people today are money driven, this will be an effective step towards controlling population. The governments of quite a few countries have already implemented such policies.

  1. Fine or Penalty

Just as the government can provide monetary benefits to those who do proper family planning, it should also put a fine on the ones who do not. A penalty should be levied on the families with more than two children.

  1. Strict Monitoring

The government must not only implement the aforementioned points but also keep a stark check on the same and ensure that these are followed.


People must understand the importance of controlling the population. It would not only give them a clean and green environment and a better standard of living but will also help in the overall development of their country. The government must also take this matter seriously and put proper rules and policies in place to ensure population control. Both the public and the government require working together to control this problem.

Effects of Population Growth on our Environment!

One of the factors responsible for environment degradation is population growth or population density. In particular, population density plays the most important role in shaping the socio-economic environment. Its effects are felt on the natural environment also.

1. Generation of Waste:

Due to his destructive activities, man has dumped more and more waste in environment. As the man-made waste is not transformed, it causes degradation and the capacity of environment to absorb more waste is reduced. Further, waste leads to air and water pollution.

2. Threat to Biodiversity:

Due to his destructive activities, man has extracted more and more minerals from the earth. Animals have been hunted and plants have disappeared. There has been loss of biodiversity. These have led to ecological imbalance.

3. Strain on Forests:

Man has established new housing colonies. National highways and hydropower projects have been built and forests have been wiped out. These destructive activities have increased and led to ecological imbalance.

4. Urbanization:

Rapid growth of population has led to urbanization which has adversely affected environment. Due to population pressure, natural resources in the cities are depleted at a fast rate due to population pressure.

Moreover, population does not have proper sanitation facilities and pure drinking water. As a result, the health of the people is adversely affected. No doubt, urbanization reduces pressure on the rural environment, but it brings with if environmental damages through industrial growth, emissions and wastes.

5. Industrialisation:

Underdeveloped countries are following the policy of heavy industrialisation which is causing environmental degradation. The establishment of such industries as fertilizers, iron and steel, chemicals and refineries have led to land, air and water pollution.

6. Land Degradation:

Intensive farming and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides have led to over-exploitation of land and water resources. These have led to land degradation in the form of soil erosion, water logging and salination.

7. Transport Development:

Environmental degradation is also due to transport development in the different parts of the world. The automobiles release huge quantities of poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. The development of ports and harbours have led to oil spills from ships adversely affecting fisheries, coral reefs, mangroves and landscapes.

8. Climatic Change:

Climatic changes are irregular due to green house gases. The thin skin of air that surrounds the planet is being affected by human activities as never before. Urban people are still being exposed to unaccepted levels of toxic pollutants. Further, forests are still being degraded by acid deposition generated by faraway industries, and greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere.

9. Productivity:

Environmental degradation not only harms health but also reduces economic productivity. Dirty water, inadequate sanitation, air pollution and land degradation cause serious diseases on an enormous scale in developing countries like India.

These, in turn, reduce the productivity levels in the country. To take specific instances, water pollution has led to declining fisheries in rivers, ponds and canals in both urban and rural areas. Water shortages have reduced economic activity in towns, and cities and villages.

Soil and hazardous wastes have polluted ground water resources which cannot be used for agricultural and industrial production.

Soil degradation leading to soil erosion, drought, etc. have led to siltation of reservoirs and blocking of river and canal transport channels. Deforestation has led to soil erosion and consequent loss of sustainable logging potential.

Loss of bio-diversity has resulted in the loss of genetic resources.

Last but not the least, atmospheric changes have given rise to disruption of marine food chain, damages to coastal infrastructure due to sea-rise and regional changes in agriculture productivity due to hurricanes in seas.

Thus, environmental degradation undermines economic productivity of a nation.

10. Technology:

Presently, environmental pollution is caused by old technology which releases gases and pollutants causing chemical and industrial pressure on environment.

Impact of Environment on Population:

Polluted environment also affects adversely the health of people.

Table 36.1 shows the types of pollution, their poisonous elements and effects on health.

Policy Measures:

Agricultural and industrial development along with urbanisation and spread of infrastructure combined with population growth has led to environmental degradation. Environmental degradation harms human health, reduces economic productivity and leads to the loss of amenities. The damaging effects of economic development on environmental degradation can be reduced by a judicious choice of economic and environmental policies and environmental investments.

We discuss some policy measures as under:

1. Control of Population Growth:

The rate of population growth should be curtailed through effective family planning measures. This is essential because the proportion of total population in the labour force will increase further in the years to come as a result of changes in the age structure of the population.

The shifting of labour force from the rural to the secondary sector requires increase in agricultural productivity. Increased agricultural productivity helps in meeting the demand for raw materials of the expanding manufacturing sector. With increased productivity, less workers are required to produce raw materials for industry and food-grains for the population.

It also increases agricultural surplus thereby raising saving and investment for economic development. So concerted efforts are needed to increase agricultural productivity through technological advancement. This will ultimately lead to commercialisation of agriculture and production for exports, thereby earning foreign exchange for further development.

2. Economic Development:

The aim of population control is not only to bring about a decline in fertility rates but also to improve the quality of life of the people. These are possible through rapid economic development. It is not an illusion to believe that a reduction in population growth will automatically raise living standards. In fact, an effective family planning policy should be integrated with measures to accelerate economic development.

As the Ninth Five Year Plan observes:

“Several of the South Asian countries have been able to achieve economic prosperity and improvement in quality of life in spite of population growth. This has been attributed to the increase in productivity due to development and utilisation of innovative technologies by the young educated population who formed the majority of the growing population.”

In the current phase of demographic transition, developing countries can also achieve economic growth and improvement in quality of life despite population growth through commercialisation of agriculture, diversified industrialisation, urbanisation, and development of infrastructure so as to increase employment opportunities, raise income levels, and saving and investment rates.

These will help the country to achieve economic transition from low economic growth (low per capita income) to high income growth and to high per capita income. This will, in turn, raise the quality of life of the people and the population will be controlled automatically.

3. Improving Health and Nutrition:

The food and nutrition security for the weaker sections in a developing country should not be considered as issues in the Nutrition Science but should be considered as part of right to work, right to health, right to education, right to information and right of the poor. In such a country, there are agricultural, health, population, nutrition, children and education policies.

On the other hand, there are fiscal and budget revisions, exports, imports, taxation, price wage, employment policies and policy related to subsidies. Ultimately, all these policies affect life of the poor, their food and nutritionist security and health. As a leading nutritionist C. Gopalan notes: “Various types of food are needed for maximum nutrition and if they are all taken together and in proper proportions (systematic balanced diet), they can provide necessary nutrients.

Guarantee of good nutrition and absence of hunger are not the same thing. Our first effort should be towards removing hunger of the poor, but our long-term goal should be to provide maximum nutrition to our people which is useful in bringing out their hereditary talents. Nutrition security is more important than food security. Nutrition security includes making our food base wider and varietal. ”

Improving health and nutrition levels is an extremely important factor contributing to the social development of a developing country. Especially the people of the weaker sections of the society who do not take adequate advantage of health, family welfare and nutrition services, should be made aware of these facilities so that their health and nutrition status can be improved.

4. Reducing Poverty:

Such development projects should be started which provide greater employment opportunities to the poor. The government should expand health and family planning services and education so as to reach the poor that will help reduce population growth. Further, making investments in providing civic amenities like the supply of drinking water, sanitation facilities, alternate habitats in place of slums, etc. will not only improve welfare but also environment.

5. Removing Subsidies:

To reduce environmental degradation at no financial cost to the government, subsidies for resource use by the private and public sectors should be removed. Subsidies on the use of electricity, fertilisers, pesticides, diesel, petrol, gas, irrigation water, etc. lead to their wasteful use and environmental problems.

Subsidies to capital intensive and highly polluting private and public industries lead to environmental degradation. Removing or reducing subsidies will bring both economic and environmental benefits to the country.

6. Clarifying and Extending Property Rights:

Lack of property rights over excessive use of resources leads to degradation of environment. This leads to overgrazing of common or public lands, deforestation, and over­exploitation of minerals, fish, etc. Clarifying and assigning ownership titles and tenurial rights to private owners will solve environmental problems. Places where the use of common lands, forests, irrigation systems, fisheries, etc. are regulated and rules for their proper use are laid down by the community, the ownership rights should be clearly specified in the administrative records.

7. Market Based Approaches:

Besides regulator measures, there is urgent need for adopting market based approaches for the protection of environment. They aim at pointing to consumers and industries about the cost of using natural resources on environment. These costs are reflected in the prices paid for goods and services so that industries and ultimately the consumers are guided by them to reduce air and water pollution.

The Market Based Instruments (MBIs) are in the form of environmental taxes that include pollution charges (emission tax/pollution taxes), marketable permits, depositor fund system, input taxes/product charges, differential tax rates and user administrative charges and subsidies for pollution abatement equipment for air and water resources.

8. Regulatory Policies:

Regulatory polices also help in reducing environmental degradation. Regulators have to make decisions regarding prices, quantity and technology. In making decisions, they have to choose between the quantity or the price of pollution or resource use of technologies.

The regulating authority has also to decide whether policies should target the environmental problem directly or indirectly. It lays down technical standards and regulations and charges on air, water and land pollutants. Regulators should be impartial in applying environmental standards to both public and private sector polluters or resources users.

9. Economic Incentives:

Like regulatory policies, economic incentives relate to price, quantity and technology. Incentives are usually in the form of variable fees to resource users for the quantity of pollutants in air, water and land use. They are given rebates if less waste or pollution is generated than the emission standards laid down.

10. Public Participation:

Public awareness and participation are highly effective to improve environmental conditions. Conducting of formal and informal education programmes relating to environment management and environmental awareness programmes can go a long way in controlling environmental degradation and keeping the environment clean. For instance, the scheme of eco-labelling of products helps consumers to identify products that are environment friendly.

Public participation can also render costless and useful assistance in Afforestation, conservation of wildlife, management of parks, improvement of sanitation and drainage systems and flood control. Use of indigenous institutions, local voluntary organisations and NGOs can render much help in educating the masses about the harmful effects of environmental degradation and the benefits of keeping the environment clean.


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