HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT CASE2Human Health Risk Assessment: Elements of Environmental Risk Assessment CaseStudy Evaluation Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessments prove to be vital importance when it comes to the protection and the health of our planet and human populations. Developed in the early 20thcentury, it has helped to inspire policies, programs, and awareness concerning contamination (chemical or biological) and the effects it may bring. In this paper, we will exploreand examine the casestudyRisk Assessment of Chromium-Contaminated Soils: Twelve Years of Research to Characterize the Health Hazards, the steps of the human health risk assessment, the exposure and toxicity that occurred at these sites, the costs and benefits of the risk assessment and finally the practical implications of the risk assessment. The CaseJust like any developing civilization, when industry increases in an area, it is soon followed by major land development and a massive increase in population. But what happens when these industries turn out to be potentially harmful to not only the people who work there but those living in the surrounding area? This is the basis of the problem for the people of Hudson County, New Jersey. Constructed in 1916 on the southern outskirts of Kearny, marked the completion of one of three chromate plants within the Hudson County Meadowlands area. (Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission (HMDC), 2001). Over several centuries, the plants changed hands many times, and the land around them grew to be one of the most densely populated regions in the United States. A staggering 12,957 people per square mile. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002). The whole time the plants continued to produce sodium dichromate
RISK ASSESSMENT2Risk Assessment Ecological risk assessments (ERA) evaluate ecological effects caused by human activitiessuch as logging or sewage drainage. These stressors, which we will refer to from now on, can be an array of chemical, physical, or biological entity that can induce adverse effects on individuals,populations, communities, and/or ecosystems (Paustenbach, 2002). Over the years this risk assessment has been updated however, the framework has pretty much stayed timeless. This paper will dive into the framework of the ERA, how each of the phases correspond to each other,and the importance of the framework. Finally this paper will explore the rich history of ERA’s and a few major innovations that took place because of it. Ecological Risk Assessment Framework and Interrelation of PhasesWhile many agencies and companies have different Ecological Risk Assessments, the framework of the ERA is pretty much universal. The framework of the Ecological Risk Assessment holds a great importance. It provides a clear and concise way to develop, organize, and present scientific data that is pertinent to specific industrial, local, state and federal policy and law decisions (“EPA”, n.d.).